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path: root/player/video.c
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/*
 * This file is part of mpv.
 *
 * mpv is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
 * modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
 * License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
 * version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * mpv is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 * GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
 * License along with mpv.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
 */

#include <stddef.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
#include <inttypes.h>
#include <math.h>
#include <assert.h>

#include "config.h"
#include "mpv_talloc.h"

#include "common/msg.h"
#include "options/options.h"
#include "options/m_config.h"
#include "options/m_option.h"
#include "common/common.h"
#include "common/encode.h"
#include "options/m_property.h"
#include "osdep/timer.h"

#include "audio/out/ao.h"
#include "audio/format.h"
#include "demux/demux.h"
#include "stream/stream.h"
#include "sub/osd.h"
#include "video/hwdec.h"
#include "filters/f_decoder_wrapper.h"
#include "video/out/vo.h"

#include "core.h"
#include "command.h"
#include "screenshot.h"

enum {
    // update_video() - code also uses: <0 error, 0 eof, >0 progress
    VD_ERROR = -1,
    VD_EOF = 0,         // end of file - no new output
    VD_PROGRESS = 1,    // progress, but no output; repeat call with no waiting
    VD_NEW_FRAME = 2,   // the call produced a new frame
    VD_WAIT = 3,        // no EOF, but no output; wait until wakeup
};

static const char av_desync_help_text[] =
"\n"
"Audio/Video desynchronisation detected! Possible reasons include too slow\n"
"hardware, temporary CPU spikes, broken drivers, and broken files. Audio\n"
"position will not match to the video (see A-V status field).\n"
"\n";

static bool recreate_video_filters(struct MPContext *mpctx)
{
    struct MPOpts *opts = mpctx->opts;
    struct vo_chain *vo_c = mpctx->vo_chain;
    assert(vo_c);

    return mp_output_chain_update_filters(vo_c->filter, opts->vf_settings);
}

int reinit_video_filters(struct MPContext *mpctx)
{
    struct vo_chain *vo_c = mpctx->vo_chain;

    if (!vo_c)
        return 0;

    if (!recreate_video_filters(mpctx))
        return -1;

    mp_force_video_refresh(mpctx);

    mp_notify(mpctx, MPV_EVENT_VIDEO_RECONFIG, NULL);

    return 0;
}

static void vo_chain_reset_state(struct vo_chain *vo_c)
{
    vo_seek_reset(vo_c->vo);
}

void reset_video_state(struct MPContext *mpctx)
{
    if (mpctx->vo_chain)
        vo_chain_reset_state(mpctx->vo_chain);

    for (int n = 0; n < mpctx->num_next_frames; n++)
        mp_image_unrefp(&mpctx->next_frames[n]);
    mpctx->num_next_frames = 0;
    mp_image_unrefp(&mpctx->saved_frame);

    mpctx->delay = 0;
    mpctx->time_frame = 0;
    mpctx->video_pts = MP_NOPTS_VALUE;
    mpctx->last_frame_duration = 0;
    mpctx->num_past_frames = 0;
    mpctx->total_avsync_change = 0;
    mpctx->last_av_difference = 0;
    mpctx->mistimed_frames_total = 0;
    mpctx->drop_message_shown = 0;
    mpctx->display_sync_drift_dir = 0;
    mpctx->display_sync_broken = false;

    mpctx->video_status = mpctx->vo_chain ? STATUS_SYNCING : STATUS_EOF;
}

void uninit_video_out(struct MPContext *mpctx)
{
    uninit_video_chain(mpctx);
    if (mpctx->video_out) {
        vo_destroy(mpctx->video_out);
        mp_notify(mpctx, MPV_EVENT_VIDEO_RECONFIG, NULL);
    }
    mpctx->video_out = NULL;
}

static void vo_chain_uninit(struct vo_chain *vo_c)
{
    struct track *track = vo_c->track;
    if (track) {
        assert(track->vo_c == vo_c);
        track->vo_c = NULL;
        if (vo_c->dec_src)
            assert(track->dec->f->pins[0] == vo_c->dec_src);
        talloc_free(track->dec->f);
        track->dec = NULL;
    }

    if (vo_c->filter_src)
        mp_pin_disconnect(vo_c->filter_src);

    talloc_free(vo_c->filter->f);
    talloc_free(vo_c);
    // this does not free the VO
}

void uninit_video_chain(struct MPContext *mpctx)
{
    if (mpctx->vo_chain) {
        reset_video_state(mpctx);
        vo_chain_uninit(mpctx->vo_chain);
        mpctx->vo_chain = NULL;

        mpctx->video_status = STATUS_EOF;

        mp_notify(mpctx, MPV_EVENT_VIDEO_RECONFIG, NULL);
    }
}

int init_video_decoder(struct MPContext *mpctx, struct track *track)
{
    assert(!track->dec);
    if (!track->stream)
        goto err_out;

    struct mp_filter *parent = mpctx->filter_root;

    // If possible, set this as parent so the decoder gets the hwdec and DR
    // interfaces.
    // Note: at least mpv_opengl_cb_uninit_gl() relies on being able to get
    //       rid of all references to the VO by destroying the VO chain. Thus,
    //       decoders not linked to vo_chain must not use the hwdec context.
    if (track->vo_c)
        parent = track->vo_c->filter->f;

    track->dec = mp_decoder_wrapper_create(parent, track->stream);
    if (!track->dec)
        goto err_out;

    if (!mp_decoder_wrapper_reinit(track->dec))
        goto err_out;

    return 1;

err_out:
    if (track->sink)
        mp_pin_disconnect(track->sink);
    track->sink = NULL;
    error_on_track(mpctx, track);
    return 0;
}

void reinit_video_chain(struct MPContext *mpctx)
{
    struct track *track = mpctx->current_track[0][STREAM_VIDEO];
    if (!track || !track->stream) {
        error_on_track(mpctx, track);
        return;
    }
    reinit_video_chain_src(mpctx, track);
}

static void filter_update_subtitles(void *ctx, double pts)
{
    struct MPContext *mpctx = ctx;

    if (osd_get_render_subs_in_filter(mpctx->osd))
        update_subtitles(mpctx, pts);
}

// (track=NULL creates a blank chain, used for lavfi-complex)
void reinit_video_chain_src(struct MPContext *mpctx, struct track *track)
{
    assert(!mpctx->vo_chain);

    if (!mpctx->video_out) {
        struct vo_extra ex = {
            .input_ctx = mpctx->input,
            .osd = mpctx->osd,
            .encode_lavc_ctx = mpctx->encode_lavc_ctx,
            .wakeup_cb = mp_wakeup_core_cb,
            .wakeup_ctx = mpctx,
        };
        mpctx->video_out = init_best_video_out(mpctx->global, &ex);
        if (!mpctx->video_out) {
            MP_FATAL(mpctx, "Error opening/initializing "
                    "the selected video_out (--vo) device.\n");
            mpctx->error_playing = MPV_ERROR_VO_INIT_FAILED;
            goto err_out;
        }
        mpctx->mouse_cursor_visible = true;
    }

    update_window_title(mpctx, true);

    struct vo_chain *vo_c = talloc_zero(NULL, struct vo_chain);
    mpctx->vo_chain = vo_c;
    vo_c->log = mpctx->log;
    vo_c->vo = mpctx->video_out;
    vo_c->filter =
        mp_output_chain_create(mpctx->filter_root, MP_OUTPUT_CHAIN_VIDEO);
    mp_output_chain_set_vo(vo_c->filter, vo_c->vo);
    vo_c->filter->update_subtitles = filter_update_subtitles;
    vo_c->filter->update_subtitles_ctx = mpctx;

    if (track) {
        vo_c->track = track;
        track->vo_c = vo_c;
        if (!init_video_decoder(mpctx, track))
            goto err_out;

        vo_c->dec_src = track->dec->f->pins[0];
        vo_c->filter->container_fps = track->dec->fps;
        vo_c->is_coverart = !!track->stream->attached_picture;

        track->vo_c = vo_c;
        vo_c->track = track;

        mp_pin_connect(vo_c->filter->f->pins[0], vo_c->dec_src);
    }

    if (!recreate_video_filters(mpctx))
        goto err_out;

    update_screensaver_state(mpctx);

    vo_set_paused(vo_c->vo, mpctx->paused);

    // If we switch on video again, ensure audio position matches up.
    if (mpctx->ao_chain)
        mpctx->audio_status = STATUS_SYNCING;

    reset_video_state(mpctx);
    reset_subtitle_state(mpctx);

    return;

err_out:
    uninit_video_chain(mpctx);
    error_on_track(mpctx, track);
    handle_force_window(mpctx, true);
}

// Try to refresh the video by doing a precise seek to the currently displayed
// frame. This can go wrong in all sorts of ways, so use sparingly.
void mp_force_video_refresh(struct MPContext *mpctx)
{
    struct MPOpts *opts = mpctx->opts;
    struct vo_chain *vo_c = mpctx->vo_chain;

    if (!vo_c)
        return;

    // If not paused, the next frame should come soon enough.
    if (opts->pause || mpctx->time_frame >= 0.5 ||
        mpctx->video_status == STATUS_EOF)
    {
        issue_refresh_seek(mpctx, MPSEEK_VERY_EXACT);
    }
}

static void check_framedrop(struct MPContext *mpctx, struct vo_chain *vo_c)
{
    struct MPOpts *opts = mpctx->opts;
    // check for frame-drop:
    if (mpctx->video_status == STATUS_PLAYING && !mpctx->paused &&
        mpctx->audio_status == STATUS_PLAYING && !ao_untimed(mpctx->ao) &&
        vo_c->track && vo_c->track->dec && (opts->frame_dropping & 2))
    {
        float fps = vo_c->filter->container_fps;
        // it's a crappy heuristic; avoid getting upset by incorrect fps
        if (fps <= 20 || fps >= 500)
            return;
        double frame_time =  1.0 / fps;
        // try to drop as many frames as we appear to be behind
        vo_c->track->dec->attempt_framedrops =
            MPCLAMP((mpctx->last_av_difference - 0.010) / frame_time, 0, 100);
    }
}

/* Modify video timing to match the audio timeline. There are two main
 * reasons this is needed. First, video and audio can start from different
 * positions at beginning of file or after a seek (MPlayer starts both
 * immediately even if they have different pts). Second, the file can have
 * audio timestamps that are inconsistent with the duration of the audio
 * packets, for example two consecutive timestamp values differing by
 * one second but only a packet with enough samples for half a second
 * of playback between them.
 */
static void adjust_sync(struct MPContext *mpctx, double v_pts, double frame_time)
{
    struct MPOpts *opts = mpctx->opts;

    if (mpctx->audio_status != STATUS_PLAYING)
        return;

    double a_pts = written_audio_pts(mpctx) + opts->audio_delay - mpctx->delay;
    double av_delay = a_pts - v_pts;

    double change = av_delay * 0.1;
    double factor = fabs(av_delay) < 0.3 ? 0.1 : 0.4;
    double max_change = opts->default_max_pts_correction >= 0 ?
                        opts->default_max_pts_correction : frame_time * factor;
    if (change < -max_change)
        change = -max_change;
    else if (change > max_change)
        change = max_change;
    mpctx->delay += change;
    mpctx->total_avsync_change += change;

    if (mpctx->display_sync_active)
        mpctx->total_avsync_change = 0;
}

// Make the frame at position 0 "known" to the playback logic. This must happen
// only once for each frame, so this function has to be called carefully.
// Generally, if position 0 gets a new frame, this must be called.
static void handle_new_frame(struct MPContext *mpctx)
{
    assert(mpctx->num_next_frames >= 1);

    double frame_time = 0;
    double pts = mpctx->next_frames[0]->pts;
    if (mpctx->video_pts != MP_NOPTS_VALUE) {
        frame_time = pts - mpctx->video_pts;
        double tolerance = mpctx->demuxer->ts_resets_possible ? 5 : 1e4;
        if (frame_time <= 0 || frame_time >= tolerance) {
            // Assume a discontinuity.
            MP_WARN(mpctx, "Invalid video timestamp: %f -> %f\n",
                    mpctx->video_pts, pts);
            frame_time = 0;
        }
    }
    mpctx->delay -= frame_time;
    if (mpctx->video_status >= STATUS_PLAYING) {
        mpctx->time_frame += frame_time / mpctx->video_speed;
        adjust_sync(mpctx, pts, frame_time);
    }
    MP_TRACE(mpctx, "frametime=%5.3f\n", frame_time);
}

// Remove the first frame in mpctx->next_frames
static void shift_frames(struct MPContext *mpctx)
{
    if (mpctx->num_next_frames < 1)
        return;
    talloc_free(mpctx->next_frames[0]);
    for (int n = 0; n < mpctx->num_next_frames - 1; n++)
        mpctx->next_frames[n] = mpctx->next_frames[n + 1];
    mpctx->num_next_frames -= 1;
}

static int get_req_frames(struct MPContext *mpctx, bool eof)
{
    // On EOF, drain all frames.
    if (eof)
        return 1;

    if (mpctx->video_out->driver->caps & VO_CAP_NORETAIN)
        return 1;

    if (mpctx->opts->untimed || mpctx->video_out->driver->untimed)
        return 1;

    int min = mpctx->opts->video_latency_hacks ? 1 : 2;

    // On the first frame, output a new frame as quickly as possible.
    // But display-sync likes to have a correct frame duration always.
    if (mpctx->video_pts == MP_NOPTS_VALUE)
        return mpctx->opts->video_sync == VS_DEFAULT ? 1 : min;

    int req = vo_get_num_req_frames(mpctx->video_out);
    return MPCLAMP(req, min, MP_ARRAY_SIZE(mpctx->next_frames) - 1);
}

// Whether it's fine to call add_new_frame() now.
static bool needs_new_frame(struct MPContext *mpctx)
{
    return mpctx->num_next_frames < get_req_frames(mpctx, false);
}

// Queue a frame to mpctx->next_frames[]. Call only if needs_new_frame() signals ok.
static void add_new_frame(struct MPContext *mpctx, struct mp_image *frame)
{
    assert(mpctx->num_next_frames < MP_ARRAY_SIZE(mpctx->next_frames));
    assert(frame);
    mpctx->next_frames[mpctx->num_next_frames++] = frame;
    if (mpctx->num_next_frames == 1)
        handle_new_frame(mpctx);
}

// Enough video filtered already to push one frame to the VO?
// Set eof to true if no new frames are to be expected.
static bool have_new_frame(struct MPContext *mpctx, bool eof)
{
    return mpctx->num_next_frames >= get_req_frames(mpctx, eof);
}

// Fill mpctx->next_frames[] with a newly filtered or decoded image.
// returns VD_* code
static int video_output_image(struct MPContext *mpctx)
{
    struct vo_chain *vo_c = mpctx->vo_chain;
    bool hrseek = mpctx->hrseek_active && mpctx->video_status == STATUS_SYNCING;

    if (vo_c->is_coverart) {
        if (vo_has_frame(mpctx->video_out))
            return VD_EOF;
        hrseek = false;
    }

    if (have_new_frame(mpctx, false))
        return VD_NEW_FRAME;

    // Get a new frame if we need one.
    int r = VD_PROGRESS;
    if (needs_new_frame(mpctx)) {
        // Filter a new frame.
        struct mp_image *img = NULL;
        struct mp_frame frame = mp_pin_out_read(vo_c->filter->f->pins[1]);
        if (frame.type == MP_FRAME_NONE) {
            r = vo_c->filter->got_output_eof ? VD_EOF : VD_WAIT;
        } else if (frame.type == MP_FRAME_EOF) {
            r = VD_EOF;
        } else if (frame.type == MP_FRAME_VIDEO) {
            img = frame.data;
        } else {
            MP_ERR(mpctx, "unexpected frame type %s\n",
                   mp_frame_type_str(frame.type));
            mp_frame_unref(&frame);
            return VD_ERROR;
        }
        if (img) {
            double endpts = get_play_end_pts(mpctx);
            if ((endpts != MP_NOPTS_VALUE && img->pts >= endpts) ||
                mpctx->max_frames == 0)
            {
                mp_pin_out_unread(vo_c->filter->f->pins[1], frame);
                img = NULL;
                r = VD_EOF;
            } else if (hrseek && mpctx->hrseek_lastframe) {
                mp_image_setrefp(&mpctx->saved_frame, img);
            } else if (hrseek && img->pts < mpctx->hrseek_pts - .005) {
                /* just skip - but save if backstep active */
                if (mpctx->hrseek_backstep)
                    mp_image_setrefp(&mpctx->saved_frame, img);
            } else if (mpctx->video_status == STATUS_SYNCING &&
                       mpctx->playback_pts != MP_NOPTS_VALUE &&
                       img->pts < mpctx->playback_pts && !vo_c->is_coverart)
            {
                /* skip after stream-switching */
            } else {
                if (hrseek && mpctx->hrseek_backstep) {
                    if (mpctx->saved_frame) {
                        add_new_frame(mpctx, mpctx->saved_frame);
                        mpctx->saved_frame = NULL;
                    } else {
                        MP_WARN(mpctx, "Backstep failed.\n");
                    }
                    mpctx->hrseek_backstep = false;
                }
                add_new_frame(mpctx, img);
                img = NULL;
            }
            talloc_free(img);
        }
    }

    // Last-frame seek
    if (r <= 0 && hrseek && mpctx->hrseek_lastframe && mpctx->saved_frame) {
        add_new_frame(mpctx, mpctx->saved_frame);
        mpctx->saved_frame = NULL;
        r = VD_PROGRESS;
    }

    return have_new_frame(mpctx, r <= 0) ? VD_NEW_FRAME : r;
}

static bool check_for_hwdec_fallback(struct MPContext *mpctx)
{
    struct vo_chain *vo_c = mpctx->vo_chain;

    if (!vo_c->filter->failed_output_conversion || !vo_c->track)
        return false;

    if (mp_decoder_wrapper_control(vo_c->track->dec,
                            VDCTRL_FORCE_HWDEC_FALLBACK, NULL) != CONTROL_OK)
        return false;

    mp_output_chain_reset_harder(vo_c->filter);
    return true;
}

/* Update avsync before a new video frame is displayed. Actually, this can be
 * called arbitrarily often before the actual display.
 * This adjusts the time of the next video frame */
static void update_avsync_before_frame(struct MPContext *mpctx)
{
    struct MPOpts *opts = mpctx->opts;
    struct vo *vo = mpctx->video_out;

    if (mpctx->vo_chain->is_coverart || mpctx->video_status < STATUS_READY) {
        mpctx->time_frame = 0;
    } else if (mpctx->display_sync_active || opts->video_sync == VS_NONE) {
        // don't touch the timing
    } else if (mpctx->audio_status == STATUS_PLAYING &&
               mpctx->video_status == STATUS_PLAYING &&
               !ao_untimed(mpctx->ao))
    {
        double buffered_audio = ao_get_delay(mpctx->ao);

        double predicted = mpctx->delay / mpctx->video_speed +
                           mpctx->time_frame;
        double difference = buffered_audio - predicted;
        MP_STATS(mpctx, "value %f audio-diff", difference);

        if (opts->autosync) {
            /* Smooth reported playback position from AO by averaging
             * it with the value expected based on previus value and
             * time elapsed since then. May help smooth video timing
             * with audio output that have inaccurate position reporting.
             * This is badly implemented; the behavior of the smoothing
             * now undesirably depends on how often this code runs
             * (mainly depends on video frame rate). */
            buffered_audio = predicted + difference / opts->autosync;
        }

        mpctx->time_frame = buffered_audio - mpctx->delay / mpctx->video_speed;
    } else {
        /* If we're more than 200 ms behind the right playback
         * position, don't try to speed up display of following
         * frames to catch up; continue with default speed from
         * the current frame instead.
         * If untimed is set always output frames immediately
         * without sleeping.
         */
        if (mpctx->time_frame < -0.2 || opts->untimed || vo->driver->untimed)
            mpctx->time_frame = 0;
    }
}

// Update the A/V sync difference when a new video frame is being shown.
static void update_av_diff(struct MPContext *mpctx, double offset)
{
    struct MPOpts *opts = mpctx->opts;

    mpctx->last_av_difference = 0;

    if (mpctx->audio_status != STATUS_PLAYING ||
        mpctx->video_status != STATUS_PLAYING)
        return;

    double a_pos = playing_audio_pts(mpctx);
    if (a_pos != MP_NOPTS_VALUE && mpctx->video_pts != MP_NOPTS_VALUE) {
        mpctx->last_av_difference = a_pos - mpctx->video_pts
                                  + opts->audio_delay + offset;
    }

    if (fabs(mpctx->last_av_difference) > 0.5 && !mpctx->drop_message_shown) {
        MP_WARN(mpctx, "%s", av_desync_help_text);
        mpctx->drop_message_shown = true;
    }
}

double calc_average_frame_duration(struct MPContext *mpctx)
{
    double total = 0;
    int num = 0;
    for (int n = 0; n < mpctx->num_past_frames; n++) {
        double dur = mpctx->past_frames[n].approx_duration;
        if (dur <= 0)
            continue;
        total += dur;
        num += 1;
    }
    return num > 0 ? total / num : 0;
}

// Find a speed factor such that the display FPS is an integer multiple of the
// effective video FPS. If this is not possible, try to do it for multiples,
// which still leads to an improved end result.
// Both parameters are durations in seconds.
static double calc_best_speed(double vsync, double frame)
{
    double ratio = frame / vsync;
    double best_scale = -1;
    double best_dev = INFINITY;
    for (int factor = 1; factor <= 5; factor++) {
        double scale = ratio * factor / rint(ratio * factor);
        double dev = fabs(scale - 1);
        if (dev < best_dev) {
            best_scale = scale;
            best_dev = dev;
        }
    }
    return best_scale;
}

static double find_best_speed(struct MPContext *mpctx, double vsync)
{
    double total = 0;
    int num = 0;
    for (int n = 0; n < mpctx->num_past_frames; n++) {
        double dur = mpctx->past_frames[n].approx_duration;
        if (dur <= 0)
            continue;
        total += calc_best_speed(vsync, dur / mpctx->opts->playback_speed);
        num++;
    }
    return num > 0 ? total / num : 1;
}

static bool using_spdif_passthrough(struct MPContext *mpctx)
{
    if (mpctx->ao_chain && mpctx->ao_chain->ao) {
        int samplerate;
        int format;
        struct mp_chmap channels;
        ao_get_format(mpctx->ao_chain->ao, &samplerate, &format, &channels);
        return !af_fmt_is_pcm(format);
    }
    return false;
}

// Compute the relative audio speed difference by taking A/V dsync into account.
static double compute_audio_drift(struct MPContext *mpctx, double vsync)
{
    // Least-squares linear regression, using relative real time for x, and
    // audio desync for y. Assume speed didn't change for the frames we're
    // looking at for simplicity. This also should actually use the realtime
    // (minus paused time) for x, but use vsync scheduling points instead.
    if (mpctx->num_past_frames <= 10)
        return NAN;
    int num = mpctx->num_past_frames - 1;
    double sum_x = 0, sum_y = 0, sum_xy = 0, sum_xx = 0;
    double x = 0;
    for (int n = 0; n < num; n++) {
        struct frame_info *frame = &mpctx->past_frames[n + 1];
        if (frame->num_vsyncs < 0)
            return NAN;
        double y = frame->av_diff;
        sum_x += x;
        sum_y += y;
        sum_xy += x * y;
        sum_xx += x * x;
        x -= frame->num_vsyncs * vsync;
    }
    return (sum_x * sum_y - num * sum_xy) / (sum_x * sum_x - num * sum_xx);
}

static void adjust_audio_resample_speed(struct MPContext *mpctx, double vsync)
{
    struct MPOpts *opts = mpctx->opts;
    int mode = opts->video_sync;

    if (mode != VS_DISP_RESAMPLE || mpctx->audio_status != STATUS_PLAYING) {
        mpctx->speed_factor_a = mpctx->speed_factor_v;
        return;
    }

    // Try to smooth out audio timing drifts. This can happen if either
    // video isn't playing at expected speed, or audio is not playing at
    // the requested speed. Both are unavoidable.
    // The audio desync is made up of 2 parts: 1. drift due to rounding
    // errors and imperfect information, and 2. an offset, due to
    // unaligned audio/video start, or disruptive events halting audio
    // or video for a small time.
    // Instead of trying to be clever, just apply an awfully dumb drift
    // compensation with a constant factor, which does what we want. In
    // theory we could calculate the exact drift compensation needed,
    // but it likely would be wrong anyway, and we'd run into the same
    // issues again, except with more complex code.
    // 1 means drifts to positive, -1 means drifts to negative
    double max_drift = vsync / 2;
    double av_diff = mpctx->last_av_difference;
    int new = mpctx->display_sync_drift_dir;
    if (av_diff * -mpctx->display_sync_drift_dir >= 0)
        new = 0;
    if (fabs(av_diff) > max_drift)
        new = av_diff >= 0 ? 1 : -1;

    bool change = mpctx->display_sync_drift_dir != new;
    if (new || change) {
        if (change)
            MP_VERBOSE(mpctx, "Change display sync audio drift: %d\n", new);
        mpctx->display_sync_drift_dir = new;

        double max_correct = opts->sync_max_audio_change / 100;
        double audio_factor = 1 + max_correct * -mpctx->display_sync_drift_dir;

        if (new == 0) {
            // If we're resetting, actually try to be clever and pick a speed
            // which compensates the general drift we're getting.
            double drift = compute_audio_drift(mpctx, vsync);
            if (isnormal(drift)) {
                // other = will be multiplied with audio_factor for final speed
                double other = mpctx->opts->playback_speed * mpctx->speed_factor_v;
                audio_factor = (mpctx->audio_speed - drift) / other;
                MP_VERBOSE(mpctx, "Compensation factor: %f\n", audio_factor);
            }
        }

        audio_factor = MPCLAMP(audio_factor, 1 - max_correct, 1 + max_correct);
        mpctx->speed_factor_a = audio_factor * mpctx->speed_factor_v;
    }
}

// Manipulate frame timing for display sync, or do nothing for normal timing.
static void handle_display_sync_frame(struct MPContext *mpctx,
                                      struct vo_frame *frame)
{
    struct MPOpts *opts = mpctx->opts;
    struct vo *vo = mpctx->video_out;
    int mode = opts->video_sync;

    if (!mpctx->display_sync_active) {
        mpctx->display_sync_error = 0.0;
        mpctx->display_sync_drift_dir = 0;
    }

    mpctx->display_sync_active = false;

    if (!VS_IS_DISP(mode) || mpctx->display_sync_broken)
        return;
    bool resample = mode == VS_DISP_RESAMPLE || mode == VS_DISP_RESAMPLE_VDROP ||
                    mode == VS_DISP_RESAMPLE_NONE;
    bool drop = mode == VS_DISP_VDROP || mode == VS_DISP_RESAMPLE ||
                mode == VS_DISP_ADROP || mode == VS_DISP_RESAMPLE_VDROP;
    drop &= frame->can_drop;

    if (resample && using_spdif_passthrough(mpctx))
        return;

    double vsync = vo_get_vsync_interval(vo) / 1e6;
    if (vsync <= 0)
        return;

    double adjusted_duration = MPMAX(0, mpctx->past_frames[0].approx_duration);
    adjusted_duration /= opts->playback_speed;
    if (adjusted_duration > 0.5)
        return;

    mpctx->speed_factor_v = 1.0;
    if (mode != VS_DISP_VDROP) {
        double best = find_best_speed(mpctx, vsync);
        // If it doesn't work, play at normal speed.
        if (fabs(best - 1.0) <= opts->sync_max_video_change / 100)
            mpctx->speed_factor_v = best;
    }

    double av_diff = mpctx->last_av_difference;
    if (fabs(av_diff) > 0.5) {
        mpctx->display_sync_broken = true;
        return;
    }

    // Determine for how many vsyncs a frame should be displayed. This can be
    // e.g. 2 for 30hz on a 60hz display. It can also be 0 if the video
    // framerate is higher than the display framerate.
    // We use the speed-adjusted (i.e. real) frame duration for this.
    double frame_duration = adjusted_duration / mpctx->speed_factor_v;
    double ratio = (frame_duration + mpctx->display_sync_error) / vsync;
    int num_vsyncs = MPMAX(lrint(ratio), 0);
    double prev_error = mpctx->display_sync_error;
    mpctx->display_sync_error += frame_duration - num_vsyncs * vsync;

    MP_TRACE(mpctx, "s=%f vsyncs=%d dur=%f ratio=%f err=%.20f (%f/%f)\n",
            mpctx->speed_factor_v, num_vsyncs, adjusted_duration, ratio,
            mpctx->display_sync_error, mpctx->display_sync_error / vsync,
            mpctx->display_sync_error / frame_duration);

    MP_STATS(mpctx, "value %f avdiff", av_diff);

    // Intended number of additional display frames to drop (<0) or repeat (>0)
    int drop_repeat = 0;

    // If we are too far ahead/behind, attempt to drop/repeat frames.
    // Tolerate some desync to avoid frame dropping due to jitter.
    if (drop && fabs(av_diff) >= 0.020 && fabs(av_diff) / vsync >= 1)
        drop_repeat = -av_diff / vsync; // round towards 0

    // We can only drop all frames at most. We can repeat much more frames,
    // but we still limit it to 10 times the original frames to avoid that
    // corner cases or exceptional situations cause too much havoc.
    drop_repeat = MPCLAMP(drop_repeat, -num_vsyncs, num_vsyncs * 10);
    num_vsyncs += drop_repeat;

    // Always show the first frame.
    if (mpctx->num_past_frames <= 1 && num_vsyncs < 1)
        num_vsyncs = 1;

    // Estimate the video position, so we can calculate a good A/V difference
    // value below. This is used to estimate A/V drift.
    double time_left = vo_get_delay(vo);

    // We also know that the timing is (necessarily) off, because we have to
    // align frame timings on the vsync boundaries. This is unavoidable, and
    // for the sake of the A/V sync calculations we pretend it's perfect.
    time_left += prev_error;
    // Likewise, we know sync is off, but is going to be compensated.
    time_left += drop_repeat * vsync;

    // If syncing took too long, disregard timing of the first frame.
    if (mpctx->num_past_frames == 2 && time_left < 0) {
        vo_discard_timing_info(vo);
        time_left = 0;
    }

    if (drop_repeat) {
        mpctx->mistimed_frames_total += 1;
        MP_STATS(mpctx, "mistimed");
    }

    mpctx->total_avsync_change = 0;
    update_av_diff(mpctx, time_left * opts->playback_speed);

    mpctx->past_frames[0].num_vsyncs = num_vsyncs;
    mpctx->past_frames[0].av_diff = mpctx->last_av_difference;

    if (resample) {
        adjust_audio_resample_speed(mpctx, vsync);
    } else {
        mpctx->speed_factor_a = 1.0;
    }

    // A bad guess, only needed when reverting to audio sync.
    mpctx->time_frame = time_left;

    frame->vsync_interval = vsync;
    frame->vsync_offset = -prev_error;
    frame->ideal_frame_duration = frame_duration;
    frame->num_vsyncs = num_vsyncs;
    frame->display_synced = true;

    mpctx->display_sync_active = true;
    update_playback_speed(mpctx);

    MP_STATS(mpctx, "value %f aspeed", mpctx->speed_factor_a - 1);
    MP_STATS(mpctx, "value %f vspeed", mpctx->speed_factor_v - 1);
}

static void schedule_frame(struct MPContext *mpctx, struct vo_frame *frame)
{
    handle_display_sync_frame(mpctx, frame);

    if (mpctx->num_past_frames > 1 &&
        ((mpctx->past_frames[1].num_vsyncs >= 0) != mpctx->display_sync_active))
    {
        MP_VERBOSE(mpctx, "Video sync mode %s.\n",
                   mpctx->display_sync_active ? "enabled" : "disabled");
    }

    if (!mpctx->display_sync_active) {
        mpctx->speed_factor_a = 1.0;
        mpctx->speed_factor_v = 1.0;
        update_playback_speed(mpctx);

        update_av_diff(mpctx, mpctx->time_frame > 0 ?
            mpctx->time_frame * mpctx->video_speed : 0);
    }
}

// Determine the mpctx->past_frames[0] frame duration.
static void calculate_frame_duration(struct MPContext *mpctx)
{
    struct vo_chain *vo_c = mpctx->vo_chain;
    assert(mpctx->num_past_frames >= 1 && mpctx->num_next_frames >= 1);

    double demux_duration = vo_c->filter->container_fps > 0
                            ? 1.0 / vo_c->filter->container_fps : -1;
    double duration = demux_duration;

    if (mpctx->num_next_frames >= 2) {
        double pts0 = mpctx->next_frames[0]->pts;
        double pts1 = mpctx->next_frames[1]->pts;
        if (pts0 != MP_NOPTS_VALUE && pts1 != MP_NOPTS_VALUE && pts1 >= pts0)
            duration = pts1 - pts0;
    }

    // The following code tries to compensate for rounded Matroska timestamps
    // by "unrounding" frame durations, or if not possible, approximating them.
    // These formats usually round on 1ms. Some muxers do this incorrectly,
    // and might go off by 1ms more, and compensate for it later by an equal
    // rounding error into the opposite direction.
    double tolerance = 0.001 * 3 + 0.0001;

    double total = 0;
    int num_dur = 0;
    for (int n = 1; n < mpctx->num_past_frames; n++) {
        // Eliminate likely outliers using a really dumb heuristic.
        double dur = mpctx->past_frames[n].duration;
        if (dur <= 0 || fabs(dur - duration) >= tolerance)
            break;
        total += dur;
        num_dur += 1;
    }
    double approx_duration = num_dur > 0 ? total / num_dur : duration;

    // Try if the demuxer frame rate fits - if so, just take it.
    if (demux_duration > 0) {
        // Note that even if each timestamp is within rounding tolerance, it
        // could literally not add up (e.g. if demuxer FPS is rounded itself).
        if (fabs(duration - demux_duration) < tolerance &&
            fabs(total - demux_duration * num_dur) < tolerance && num_dur >= 16)
        {
            approx_duration = demux_duration;
        }
    }

    mpctx->past_frames[0].duration = duration;
    mpctx->past_frames[0].approx_duration = approx_duration;

    MP_STATS(mpctx, "value %f frame-duration", MPMAX(0, duration));
    MP_STATS(mpctx, "value %f frame-duration-approx", MPMAX(0, approx_duration));
}

void write_video(struct MPContext *mpctx)
{
    struct MPOpts *opts = mpctx->opts;

    if (!mpctx->vo_chain)
        return;
    struct track *track = mpctx->vo_chain->track;
    struct vo_chain *vo_c = mpctx->vo_chain;
    struct vo *vo = vo_c->vo;

    if (vo_c->filter->reconfig_happened) {
        mp_notify(mpctx, MPV_EVENT_VIDEO_RECONFIG, NULL);
        vo_c->filter->reconfig_happened = false;
    }

    // Actual playback starts when both audio and video are ready.
    if (mpctx->video_status == STATUS_READY)
        return;

    if (mpctx->paused && mpctx->video_status >= STATUS_READY)
        return;

    int r = video_output_image(mpctx);
    MP_TRACE(mpctx, "video_output_image: %d\n", r);

    if (r < 0)
        goto error;

    if (r == VD_WAIT) // Demuxer will wake us up for more packets to decode.
        return;

    if (r == VD_EOF) {
        if (check_for_hwdec_fallback(mpctx))
            return;
        if (vo_c->filter->failed_output_conversion)
            goto error;

        mpctx->delay = 0;
        mpctx->last_av_difference = 0;

        if (mpctx->video_status <= STATUS_PLAYING) {
            mpctx->video_status = STATUS_DRAINING;
            get_relative_time(mpctx);
            if (mpctx->num_past_frames == 1 && mpctx->past_frames[0].pts == 0 &&
                !mpctx->ao_chain)
            {
                MP_VERBOSE(mpctx, "assuming this is an image\n");
                mpctx->time_frame += opts->image_display_duration;
            } else if (mpctx->last_frame_duration > 0) {
                MP_VERBOSE(mpctx, "using demuxer frame duration for last frame\n");
                mpctx->time_frame += mpctx->last_frame_duration;
            } else {
                mpctx->time_frame = 0;
            }
            // Encode mode can't honor this; it'll only delay finishing.
            if (mpctx->encode_lavc_ctx)
                mpctx->time_frame = 0;
        }

        if (mpctx->video_status == STATUS_DRAINING) {
            mpctx->time_frame -= get_relative_time(mpctx);
            mp_set_timeout(mpctx, mpctx->time_frame);
            if (mpctx->time_frame <= 0) {
                MP_VERBOSE(mpctx, "video EOF reached\n");
                mpctx->video_status = STATUS_EOF;
            }
        }

        MP_DBG(mpctx, "video EOF (status=%d)\n", mpctx->video_status);
        return;
    }

    if (mpctx->video_status > STATUS_PLAYING)
        mpctx->video_status = STATUS_PLAYING;

    if (r != VD_NEW_FRAME) {
        mp_wakeup_core(mpctx); // Decode more in next iteration.
        return;
    }

    // Filter output is different from VO input?
    struct mp_image_params p = mpctx->next_frames[0]->params;
    if (!vo->params || !mp_image_params_equal(&p, vo->params)) {
        // Changing config deletes the current frame; wait until it's finished.
        if (vo_still_displaying(vo))
            return;

        const struct vo_driver *info = mpctx->video_out->driver;
        char extra[20] = {0};
        if (p.p_w != p.p_h) {
            int d_w, d_h;
            mp_image_params_get_dsize(&p, &d_w, &d_h);
            snprintf(extra, sizeof(extra), " => %dx%d", d_w, d_h);
        }
        char sfmt[20] = {0};
        if (p.hw_subfmt)
            snprintf(sfmt, sizeof(sfmt), "[%s]", mp_imgfmt_to_name(p.hw_subfmt));
        MP_INFO(mpctx, "VO: [%s] %dx%d%s %s%s\n",
                info->name, p.w, p.h, extra, mp_imgfmt_to_name(p.imgfmt), sfmt);
        MP_VERBOSE(mpctx, "VO: Description: %s\n", info->description);

        int vo_r = vo_reconfig2(vo, mpctx->next_frames[0]);
        if (vo_r < 0) {
            mpctx->error_playing = MPV_ERROR_VO_INIT_FAILED;
            goto error;
        }
        mp_notify(mpctx, MPV_EVENT_VIDEO_RECONFIG, NULL);
    }

    mpctx->time_frame -= get_relative_time(mpctx);
    update_avsync_before_frame(mpctx);

    // Enforce timing subtitles to video frames.
    osd_set_force_video_pts(mpctx->osd, MP_NOPTS_VALUE);

    if (!update_subtitles(mpctx, mpctx->next_frames[0]->pts)) {
        MP_VERBOSE(mpctx, "Video frame delayed due to waiting on subtitles.\n");
        return;
    }

    double time_frame = MPMAX(mpctx->time_frame, -1);
    int64_t pts = mp_time_us() + (int64_t)(time_frame * 1e6);

    // wait until VO wakes us up to get more frames
    // (NB: in theory, the 1st frame after display sync mode change uses the
    //      wrong waiting mode)
    if (!vo_is_ready_for_frame(vo, mpctx->display_sync_active ? -1 : pts))
        return;

    assert(mpctx->num_next_frames >= 1);

    if (mpctx->num_past_frames >= MAX_NUM_VO_PTS)
        mpctx->num_past_frames--;
    MP_TARRAY_INSERT_AT(mpctx, mpctx->past_frames, mpctx->num_past_frames, 0,
                        (struct frame_info){0});
    mpctx->past_frames[0] = (struct frame_info){
        .pts = mpctx->next_frames[0]->pts,
        .num_vsyncs = -1,
    };
    calculate_frame_duration(mpctx);

    int req = vo_get_num_req_frames(mpctx->video_out);
    assert(req >= 1 && req <= VO_MAX_REQ_FRAMES);
    struct vo_frame dummy = {
        .pts = pts,
        .duration = -1,
        .still = mpctx->step_frames > 0,
        .can_drop = opts->frame_dropping & 1,
        .num_frames = MPMIN(mpctx->num_next_frames, req),
        .num_vsyncs = 1,
    };
    for (int n = 0; n < dummy.num_frames; n++)
        dummy.frames[n] = mpctx->next_frames[n];
    struct vo_frame *frame = vo_frame_ref(&dummy);

    double diff = mpctx->past_frames[0].approx_duration;
    if (opts->untimed || vo->driver->untimed)
        diff = -1; // disable frame dropping and aspects of frame timing
    if (diff >= 0) {
        // expected A/V sync correction is ignored
        diff /= mpctx->video_speed;
        if (mpctx->time_frame < 0)
            diff += mpctx->time_frame;
        frame->duration = MPCLAMP(diff, 0, 10) * 1e6;
    }

    mpctx->video_pts = mpctx->next_frames[0]->pts;
    mpctx->last_vo_pts = mpctx->video_pts;
    mpctx->last_frame_duration =
        mpctx->next_frames[0]->pkt_duration / mpctx->video_speed;

    shift_frames(mpctx);

    schedule_frame(mpctx, frame);

    mpctx->osd_force_update = true;
    update_osd_msg(mpctx);

    vo_queue_frame(vo, frame);

    check_framedrop(mpctx, vo_c);

    // The frames were shifted down; "initialize" the new first entry.
    if (mpctx->num_next_frames >= 1)
        handle_new_frame(mpctx);

    mpctx->shown_vframes++;
    if (mpctx->video_status < STATUS_PLAYING) {
        mpctx->video_status = STATUS_READY;
        // After a seek, make sure to wait until the first frame is visible.
        if (!opts->video_latency_hacks) {
            vo_wait_frame(vo);
            MP_VERBOSE(mpctx, "first video frame after restart shown\n");
        }
    }
    screenshot_flip(mpctx);

    mp_notify(mpctx, MPV_EVENT_TICK, NULL);

    if (mpctx->vo_chain->is_coverart)
        mpctx->video_status = STATUS_EOF;

    if (mpctx->video_status != STATUS_EOF) {
        if (mpctx->step_frames > 0) {
            mpctx->step_frames--;
            if (!mpctx->step_frames)
                set_pause_state(mpctx, true);
        }
        if (mpctx->max_frames == 0 && !mpctx->stop_play)
            mpctx->stop_play = AT_END_OF_FILE;
        if (mpctx->max_frames > 0)
            mpctx->max_frames--;
    }

    mp_wakeup_core(mpctx);
    return;

error:
    MP_FATAL(mpctx, "Could not initialize video chain.\n");
    uninit_video_chain(mpctx);
    error_on_track(mpctx, track);
    handle_force_window(mpctx, true);
    mp_wakeup_core(mpctx);
}